Like many indextype soil s tests some shrinkswell tests are based on practical needs a nd tend to be rather crude a nd unreliable. Free swell index, yes we will learn this important soil test in this video, for more detail visit our website follow us o. Nylon fibre was used to reinforce the expansive soil specimens. D653 terminology relating to soil, rock, and contained fluids d698 test methods for laboratory compaction characteristics of soil using standard effort 12 400 ftlbfft3 600. Free burning coals do not have the same swelling characteristic free swelling index of 0. Hence an attempt is madein this investigation to study the effect of textile effluent on the differential free swell index value of an expansive soil. Free swell index test of soil, fsi test of soil asper is. Objective for determination of free swell index of soils reference standard is. To realize foundaiton distress, the swell pressures have to exceed the foundation stress. The granular material used for the installation of granular pil 2. In order to determine the relationship with the highest regression coefficient between the index parameters and swell index, regression analyses were performed between w n, ll, e 0, g n, g d and swell index. Prediction of the free swell index of the expansive soil using artificial neural network has been presented in this paper.
Free swell index fsi indicates the potential expansiveness of a soil. The index properties of the soil are presented in table 1. Astm d5890 19 standard test method for swell index of clay. The amount of certain clay minerals that are present, such as montmorillonite and smectite, directly affects the shrinkswell capacity of soil. Characterization of the swelling properties of highly. The soil samples, kerosene being a nonpolar liquid does not cause swelling of the soil. Establishing relationship between swelling pressure and free swell index of soils a case study proceedings of national conf. Atterberges limits, free swell index, swelling pressure, c. Swell testing apparatus, swell test apparatus, swelling.
For the soil samples index properties are calculated and soils are classified accordingly. Definition soil swelling is a term generally applied to the ability of a soil to undergo large changes in volume due to increased moisture content. Im just not sure how you convert free swell into a. Subbituminous coals and lignite are classified as freeburning coals. The modified free swell index is shown to bear unique correlations with liquid limit volume basis and percent swell of oedometer specimens compacted to proctor optimum conditions. The present paper deals with the evaluation of free swell index of black cotton soil with fly ash, which are individually determined first and then combined in varying proportions. The process began with the selection of input parameters and the output parameter. In many cases, the shrinking and swelling of expansive clays in response to mois. Free swell index is the increase in volume of a soil, without any external constraints, on submergence in water. Swelling properties of expansive soils treated with. Estimation of swell index of fine grained soils using.
Soil reactivity testsdetermination of the shrinkage index of a soilshrinkswell index 1 scope this standard sets out a method for conducting a swell test and a simplified core shrinkage test on companion samples of undisturbed soil. Both caking and free burning coals can be burned without difficulty in pulverized coalfired boilers. Standard test methods for onedimensional swell or collapse. They concluded that the soil clusters became larger and that binding with ohled to formation of floccules resulting in the. Im just not sure how you convert free swell into a design value for the foundation. Traditional freeswell testing to achieve the same level of characterization required approximately 30 days for the highly plastic clay evaluated in the study. In this method 10 grams of ovendried soil sample passing. Free swell is the increase in volume of a soil, without any external constraints, on submergence in water. The content of the lime and phosphogypsum varied from 0 to 10 %. The soil was a highly swelling soil withfree swell index fsi of 180%. The soil properties like liquid limit, plastic limit, plasticity index, free swell, compaction test and cbr unsoaked were determined. Remoulded compacted soil, when soaked in water, absorbs water and swells.
The free swell index of the soil shall be calculated as follows. The level of the soil in the kerosenegraduated cylinder shall be read as the original volume. Soil shrinkage characteristics in swelling soils 477 methods for assessing soil swellshrink potential a coefficient of linear extensibility, cole it characterizes the variation of soil volume from atm water retention i. Methodology swelling tests in model tank the soil sample of height 80 mm was compacted corresponding to maximum dry density and optimum moisture content in a mould of dia 150 mm and height of 180. In the industry the swell index tests are used as a prescreening method for. Clay soils swelling on wetting at cranfield university duration. In order to promote public education and public safety, equal justice for all, a better informed citizenry, the rule of law, world trade and world peace, this legal document is hereby made available on a noncommercial basis, as it is the right of all humans to. The swelling pressure increases as the free swell index increases.
Equipment apparatus oven1050c to 1100c, min balance 0. Prediction of free swell index for the expansive soil. Pdf on feb 19, 2019, rakesh kumar dutta and others published prediction of free swell index for the expansive soil using artificial neural. Swellconsolidation characteristics of fibrereinforced.
No doubt, the free swell test will give you some measure that the soil is prone to swell. In this study the swelling index, plasticity index and linear shrinkage of bentonite clay and activated bentonite clay were determined. Procedure soil sample upto 500 gram is taken from desired site and kept in oven for 24 hours at 1001100c, so that sample becomes. Correlation between swelling index of bentonite clay and.
Soil with a high shrinkswell capacity is problematic and is known as shrinkswell soil, or expansive soil. Swelling properties of expansive soils treated with chemicals. Free swell will overstate the extent of the swelling. Expansive soil of a high free swell index fsi was used in the experimental study. Like many index type soil s tests some shrink swell tests are based on practical needs a nd tend to be rather crude a nd unreliable. Determine free swell index of soil civil engineering. Correlation between swelling index of bentonite clay and the. Free swell or differential free swell, also termed as free swell index, is the increase in volume of soil without any external constraint when subjected to submergence in water. Standard test method for expansion index of soils1 this standard is issued under the. Pdf prediction of free swell index for the expansive soil using. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Data required for modeling were collected f rom the literature 312.
Determination of free swell index of soils slideshare. In this paper, a nondimensional modified free swell index is proposed, which removes the uncertainties present in the holtz and gibbs method. The plots were drawn for the training and the testing data of the ann model and were shown in fig. Prediction of fsi value by using hyperbola method international. Engineering properties such as compaction, unconfined compressive strength, consistency limits, percentage swell, free swell index, the california bearing ratio and the consolidation of bentonite stabilized with lime and phosphogypsum are presented in this paper. From preliminary investigations it can be said that free swelling index can be reduced in. What is the procedure for free swell index test of soil. Pdf prediction of free swell index for the expansive. Swell test apparatus is designed to determine the swelling pressure developed by soil specimens moulded to desired densities at known moisture content. Where fsimax is the maximum predicted free swell index, fsimin is the minimum predicted free swell index respectively.
In order to promote public education and public safety, equal justice for all, a better informed citizenry, the rule of law, world trade and world peace, this legal document is hereby made available on a noncommercial basis, as it is the right of all humans to know and speak the laws that govern them. The swell index or free swell test procedure is used to determine the general swelling characteristics of sodium bentonite clay. In this video we will learn how to determine the free swell index of soil. The possibility of damage to structures due to swelling of expensive clays need be identified, at the outset, by an investigation of those soils. In this method, which is a standard method of practice speci. Free swell index test of soil, fsi test of soil asper is code. Input parameters for the artificial neural network model were plasticity index and shrinkage index, while the output was the free swell index. Determine free swell index of soil civil engineering portal. Methods of testing soils for engineering purposes method 7. The determination of free swell index also known as differential free swell of soil helps to identify the potential of a soil to swell which might need further detailed investigation regarding swelling and swelling pressures under different field conditions. Engineering properties of bentonite stabilized with lime and. The free swelling index generally increases with rank among relatively fresh bituminous coals with less than 9%.
Free swell index test is conducted by taking 10g of oven. The free swell index shows a nearly linear variation. Standard test method for expansion index of soils1. Pdf prediction of free swell index for the expansive soil. Mar 05, 2018 determination of free swell index of soils 1. This method allowed for the characterization of the swelling properties of the soil within 24 hours of the start of testing. Modified free swell index for clays astm international. The shrinkswell index of clay refers to the extent certain clay minerals will expand when wet and retract when dry. Subbituminous coals and lignite are classified as free burning coals. Prediction of free swell index for the expansive soil using.
Thus, ranganatham and satyanarayan 1965 propose an equation of the form. For highly plastic soils the nature of curve of free swell index versus swelling pressure is upward concave while for low plasticity soils it is downward concave. The maximum dry unit weight was 14 knm3 and the optimum moisture content was 27%. The level of the soil in the distilled water cylinder shall be read as the free swell level.
The measure of swell used by the corps of engineers is termed the free swell index. Engineering properties of bentonite stabilized with lime. The results indicated that the dry density, cbr values were improved and swelling was reduced due to addition of copper slag 30% and fly ash 10% % by weight of soil in the soil. Study about swelling behaviour of black cotton soil with. Definition free swell index is the increase in volume of a soil, without any external constraints, on submergence in water. Artificial neural network the methodology used for modeling the prediction of the free swell index of the expansive soil using a neural network has been presented in this section. Classification procedures for expansive soils citeseerx. Expansive soil was collected at a depth of 1 m from the ground level from the town of amalapuram, ap, india. There is still a great necessity for civil and geotechnical engineering practice in the city to deepen the understanding of the mechanical properties of the soils in this zone of the city. As the clay percentage in a soil increases, it exhibits more swelling pressure and free swell index. Prediction of swelling characteristics of remoulded and. Freeburning coals do not have the same swelling characteristic free swelling index of 0. Astm d589019, standard test method for swell index of clay mineral component of geosynthetic clay liners, astm international, west conshohocken, pa, 2019. Effects of textile effluent on the differential free swell.
May 20, 2018 free swell index, yes we will learn this important soil test in this video, for more detail visit our website follow us o. To determine the free swell index of soil as per is. Free swell is 2720 part 201977 experimentation all experiments were carried out from engineering point of view to identify the reduction in free swell index and to improve the engineering properties of black cotton soil. However, the free swelling test is simple to perform, does not require sophisticated instrumentation, and provides a reasonable measure of the caking properties of coal.1048 1363 391 602 575 221 577 1571 12 839 812 1473 1050 1247 138 15 1068 1107 716 13 1051 860 1043 771 137 1396 1434 1343 152 919 589 779 1039 1522 1511 1285 1415 1084 550 546 249 1193 278 472 1452 1352